As what we can see between atoms, there are literal elastic-like bonds that connect an atom to another atom. Despite of this fact, many of the 2nd scientific revolutionary physicists are habitually ignoring those literal interatomic bonds (the sticks or electrons between atoms) and blatantly substituted them with the words interatomic forces or intermolecular forces, of which “force” is invisible, leading to a colateral conclusion that those spheres are not literal atoms (as the bonds between them are not literal) but forces. This is because they are keeping in trying to fit the factual atoms & electrons to their notion (that is, electrons are revolving & orbiting). Of course the beta photons, which are the constituents of the electrons, are exerting forces but not as orbiting planet, rather as particles in a spread out elastic bond.
Facts and suggestions to remember
The fact shows that as the pengraletic electron is more stretched out and distant from the atoms it connects, the thinner it is. On contrary, the closer the pengralet (electron bond) to the atoms it holds, the thicker it appears, suggesting that every electron has a constant or an average quantity of beta-photons (betons).
Another fact is that penraletic electron appears as bridge between neighboring atoms and it holds atoms in a fix position (if the element is in a solid form).
We can also see the fact that pengraletic electron can disturb (stretch) the shape of the atoms, suggesting that it coerces atoms from one direction to another (as apparently the electron bonds are not only superficially attached on but deeply pierced in the atoms).
The interesting fact is knowing that the focus of concentration of those electrons are the so-called atoms, suggesting that atom is a layered of beta photons (ßeta particles are the components of electrons;this is why nucleons are essentially electrons if absolutely made up of beta photons.)
From now on, in lieu of the invisible interatomic forces, we may describe the surrounding of the atoms with the literal elastic-like spread of electron bonds.
Interatomic and intermolecular forces can be used to deceive students, that is, to keep insist that electrons are orbiting like planets, even though the fact shows that pengraletic electrons are spread out bonds from atom to atom.
(Picture of Gold Atoms)
To back up our claim, the electron (or the body) of a hydrogen atom can hold more than two atoms or can make many bonds to hold many extra atoms to solidify the element. Therefore, hydrogen becomes solid because its body can form many heisenberg passages to be pierced in by neighboring electrons or elastic bridges between hydrogen atoms to almost all directions (e.g., left, right, front, back, above, below; diagonal up, down, slanting left & right) per atom. The key to solidification is the number of direction & the pengralets (electron bonds) projected to those directions per atom. In fact, the state (gas, liquid, solid, etc.) of an element depends on the pengraletic electron bonds that hold the atoms. The more pengralets (electron bonds) from an atom are projected or firmly spread out from or to various directions to pierce into neighboring atoms, the tighter (the more solid) the object they constituted with.
Credits: Photograph of Silicon Atoms (IBM, Science Photo Library);
picture of iridium atoms from Dr. E. Muller's photograph of iridium crystal;
picture of gold atoms (Science Photo Library)
Drawings of a metal’s atom and innerstructure (Allan Poe Bona Redoña)